Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and immunity play a significant role in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. It has also been observed that, independent of the presence of aggregated proteins, neuroinflammation could be present in different neurodegenerative diseases. It has also been suggested that neuroinflammation could occur well ahead of amyloid deposition in AD. Recent genetic studies and other preclinical studies specifically point to a role of neuroinflammation and, in this review, we evaluate the evidence of neuroinflammation in the Alzheimer's disease trajectory and the different imaging modalities by which we could monitor neuroinflammation in vivo in humans.
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