Governments must work tirelessly to update their preparedness for dealing with natural and man-made disasters, as well as taking account of the increasingly present threat of terrorism. Efficient international cooperation is key to achieving safety and internationalizing security policy.
This book presents the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) Engaging the Public to Fight the Consequences of Terrorism and Disasters, held in Tbilisi, Georgia, in June 2014. The purpose of the workshop was to analyze accumulated European theoretical knowledge and practical experience in the field of disaster prevention and the involvement of the public in preventing and fighting the consequences of terrorism, as well as natural and man-made disasters. There was a particular focus on the perspective of the region, especially with a view to meeting European Union standards and setting uniform and independent standards for hazard and risk assessment methods. The protection of economically critical infrastructure, such as dams, pipelines and transport and storage facilities, was addressed as were the issues of managing water and non-renewable resources, the disposal of dangerous chemicals and radioactive waste, and defensible methods of transport for fuel supplies and key personnel.
Contributions reflected the extensive experience of the participating NATO and partner countries, including Armenia, Austria, Bulgaria, Georgia, Germany, Italy, Moldova, the Netherlands, Romania, Turkey and Ukraine as well as international organizations such as UNECE and NATO.
This ARW was conducted in Tbilisi, Georgia in the period of 2-4 June 2014. It had the task of analysing accumulated European theoretical knowledge and practical experience in the field of disaster prevention, involvement of public in preventing and fighting the consequences of terrorism, natural and manmade disasters as well as elaboration of practical recommendations adapted to the trends of human and social dynamics. It involved social and sociological aspects, positive attitudes of the population to events, public information, warning and territorial features. The workshop had demonstrated the internationalization of security policy, the overcoming of regional limits and, eventually, achieving safety and security globalization through efficient international cooperation. The measures to prevent terrorist acts were discussed and adapted to the local Caucasian region features.
Risk and vulnerability assessments related in particular to both natural and engineering science approaches with particular emphasis on effective methods of communication between relevant authorities and the public. Thus the Workshop had the aim to summarize and generalize the assessments of different types of vulnerabilities that impact social, personal, economic and political development, as well as presenting applications and possible solutions for different scenarios of terrorist attacks and disasters.
ARW had embraced a wide range of topical problems including environmental security issues and methods of preventing and mitigating risks caused by terrorist activities and disasters. Economically critical infrastructure (such as dams, pipelines, transportation and storage facilities and hazardous material production and treatment) becomes more vulnerable because of the growing number of natural disasters and local conflicts in the region. Thus, the focal points of the ARW had included management of water and non-renewable resources, disposal of dangerous chemicals and radioactive wastes, as well as defensible methods of transport for fuel supplies, and key personnel, as well as the study of the necessary human factors in defence against terrorism.
Discussed in the Workshop problems were recognised trough the necessary adjustment of many national requirements in partner countries to meet European Union’s standards. It is very important to set uniform and independent standards for hazard and risk assessment methods, and the prevention and management of identified risk at a national and regional level. Their implementation can be based on a combination of national and regional elements, and will integrate the most advanced accumulated relevant practical experience in European countries.
The ARW contributions reflected extensive experience in the participating NATO and “partner” countries as Armenia, Austria, Bulgaria, Georgia, Germany, Italy, Moldova, Nederland, Romania, Turkey and the Ukraine as well as in such international organisations as UNECE and NATO.
The ARW had attracted a high level of interest from different Georgian scientific and state institutions.
Participants had expressed their opinion on continuing need to convene some more dedicated follow-up ARWs, especially in the field of terrorist attempts involving CBRN aspects, related to these public health issues.
This paper argues that to conduct governance effectively, those elected must act morally upright and in accordance with the law, but must also communicate their actions effectively and keep their citizens informed through open, interactive dialogue. It is aimed squarely at policy makers and will analyze the problem of how to engage the public in the fight against terrorism. Ultimately the paper argues that open, transparent governance which offers room for critical debate and dialogue will build a resilient society. This type of society will be better prepared in the event of a terrorist attack and more capable of rejecting fear and countering the violent message with its own spirited rebuke.
This paper focuses on the role of communication, in particular of social media, during all the phases of an emergency. Through the use of these new ways of disseminating information, procedures and actors involved in the emergency communication process have sensibly changed: people are no more only information consumers, rather they are gradually becoming producers. Thus, to what extent can engaging the public through social media be effective within the broader management cycle? In order to answer this question, the paper analyzes an Italian case study about the use of Twitter during the cyclone in Sardinia and discusses derivated responsibilities for both Institutions and the public should a communicative engagement process be adopeted.
In present conditions, the fight against terrorism as one of the most serious challenges to the world community is impossible without joint international efforts, since it has obtained an international, global nature and has become a universal phenomenon. Its growingly increasing internationalization is an unquestionable fact faced by states. The present-day international terrorism represents not only and not just saboteursloners, hijackers and kamikaze killers. It represents powerful international institutions with arming respective to their scale. The events at the end of XX - beginning of XXI century evidence that the present terrorism is able to conduct sabotage- terroristic war, participate in major armed conflicts.
The peculiarities of modern international terrorism are creating a network of international and regional governing authorities to address the problems of planning of terroristic activities, preparations for carrying out specific actions, organization of interaction between separate groups and actual doers. Modern terrorists have set themselves a mission related to the initiation of anti-government sentiments in society for the conquest of power, penetration into public bodies and political, economic and security agencies, establishment of an extensive network of centers and bases for training militants and providing actions in various regions of the world.
Paata J. Kervalishvili, Manana G. Khachidze, Archil A. Chirakadze
27 - 39
Last achievements in information science and technology illuminated some important approaches and ways to increase the human security through different scientific methods and technology innovations. Elaboration of new information systems including nanosensory instruments and quantum sensory devices create the unique possibilities to develop new methods and tools for organization of sensory networks which could measure the very different properties and parameters of human living and working environment. Novel information technologies as well as novel management and control systems are the basis of development of so called smart infrastructure which decrease the natural and technological risks for sustainable maintenance of safety and security of the civil society.
This paper addresses an Italian project intend to produce a Mobile Application to engage youth into the Civil Protection culture and system. Based on a literature review about new ways of teaching and learning through the use of IT tools, the project emerged from a simple question: can there be a modern way to interact with people aged between 14 and 19, which are known to be a difficult audience when referring to civil protection domain, in order to raise their awareness and to stimulate them to be part of it? In order to work on this issue a workshop with experts on civil protection school trainings or programs was organized. Although results from that activity are just the starting point for the realization of the final product, which has not been released yet, they can enlighten application's purposes and structure and give suggestions for further improvements.
An importance of wide involvement of NGO's and free public discussion into realization of the environmental projects is discussed in the context of the municipal wastes collection, sorting and utilization in Chernivtsi, Ukraine. A series of specific tasks to be solved by these institutions are outlined for various steps of the projects realizations. It is shown that public discussion is a vital step that can not be replaced by any other activity or event. Since the level of waste collection and utilization technologies in Ukraine is comparatively low, successful realization of such a project and wide involvement of the local population is expected as an encouraging example for next potential steps in the environment improvement and conservation in other regions of Ukraine and other countries.
Helmut Niessner, Marion S. Rauner, Ulrike Leopold-Wildburger, Natasa Peric, Teresa Herdlicka
74 - 90
The number of complex and unique mass casualty incidents (MCIs) has increased due to natural and technological disasters as well as man-made disasters such as political instabilities, economic recession, and terrorism. Thus, health care policy makers such as the Austrian Samaritan Organization require a policy management game for training emergency staff on planning and scheduling at the incident site to quickly evacuate an emergency site and to minimize the number of fatalities. In addition, students can be educated on scheduling and planning techniques such as simulation, queuing theory, and resource allocation. To investigate the potential of our policy management game, we conducted an experimental study with 96 participants including students, practitioners from health care services, and researchers. They acted as incident commanders to decide on sending medical staff to triage, to different treatment rooms for care and to on-site transportation, as well as to transportation to hospitals during three game runs. The participants rated the general structure and organization of the experiment as high. The performance was also improved by many participants during the experiment. We found differences in performance among the different participant groups.
Sergey Stankevich, Tamara Dudar, Anna Kozlova, Leonid Eidelstein
91 - 103
The possibilities of remote sensing, geoinformation technologies and telecommunication networks to engage the public in counteraction to natural and man-made disasters and terrorism are described. The existing disaster warning system in Ukraine is considered. The estimated requirements for remote sensing systems that can be used for information support to counteract terrorism and disasters are discussed.
Some common features of environmental catastrophes and terrorist attacks are considered and analyzed. Some examples of the NGO members' activities during some technical and environmental catastrophes are shown and discussed in the light of their effectiveness and cooperation with the specialized government organizations.
An attempt to analyze the state of civil-military collaboration during emergency situations - natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, fires), terror attacks is made in this paper. Smart practices in some countries with broad experience in the area are discussed and examples of good practices in Bulgaria are presented. Some contradictions in the Bulgarian legislation on prevention and disaster recovery are analyzed and conclusions for improving are made.
Dental specialists oriented to dental odontology play an important role in the detection of victims after disasters (natural, man-made, terrorism, bombings, earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, air crashes, crime etc.). Recently happened mass natural disasters clearly stated that person identification is important not only from practical point of view but also how fast and with enough confidence this can be done. The aim of this work is to review the applications of forensic dentistry in the process of victim identification. The focus is on the extended use of forensic dental techniques leading to resulting positive impact on human identification. Dental identification of humans occurs for a number of different reasons and in a number of different situations. The common reasons for discussing identification are related to criminal, marriage, monetary (payment of pensions, life inssurance), burial (religion's requirements), social (human rights), closure (individuals missing for long time). In this overview, some of the traditional and upcoming techniques in this fascinating field are discussed. It is concluded that the management and identification problems following mass disaster can be solved fast and in adequate level only on the base of universal guidelines and codes. The role of the center and branches for emergency activity to assists local authorities to create action plans, conducting exercises etc. related to catastrophic incidents, whether terrorism or natural disaster is vital.
This paper presents the use of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) for strengthening reinforced concrete (R/C) and masonry structures in disaster areas. FRPs have gained rapid popularity in recent years as one of the strengthening techniques of structural concrete and masonry members. Although substantial experimental and analytical researches have been conducted to model and simulate the response of these members confined with FRP jackets under concentric and eccentric loading, there is still an apparent need for efficient numerical models to further understand the stress-strain behavior and failure mechanisms of the confined material. The primary aim of this paper is to introduce an effective modeling procedure for the reinforced concrete (R/C) and masonry structural members such as columns and walls under shear and/or compression.
The paper describes the background, essence, and advantages of the Checklist being developed to evaluate and improve the safety level of Tailings Management Facilities (TMF). Increasing accumulation of mining wastes, climate changes and rising geological risks during last decades demonstrated the growing need for such a document as an easy-to-use tool for state ecological inspections, environmental auditors, and TMF operators. This document includes the questionnaire with unified answers, a special procedure for overall and differential (per certain categories) evaluation of TMF safety, and Measure Catalogue. The latter is considered as the key element of the Checklist and comprises the list of measures selected from best available practices in mining and environmental technologies. Systematic application of TMF Checklist will contribute to improvement of public safety in the areas adversely affected by long-time operation of tailings. The document implies informing public on a TMF project during all phases of life-cycle and concrete measures ensuring safety of near-by population.
Rescue and relief efforts for the aftermath of a disaster have complex and integrated processes and teams working interpedently. Planning is an essential part for the success and speed of the teams. Author analyses the planning practices of Turkish Disaster and Emergency management Directorate (AFAD) through Project Management Institute's (PMI) planning methodology. Risk management, handling of the chaotic environment and communication maturity are cornerstones of the effective planning efforts.
General information about natural disasters is outlined. Special attention is given to the description of geophysical type catastrophes (including in Georgia), possibilities of their artificial initiation for military purposes, measures for prevention and methods of reduction of their negative action on the living environment of peoples.
Each country has more or less sufficient disaster management infrastructure consisted of pre-arranged and pre-planned integrity of legislations, stockpiling, human resources etc. Nevertheless, the gap between resource possibility and requirement appears significant time by time. For this reason the volunteer communities seem to be an effective tool to assist regular disaster response agencies. Members of such type of community usually are disseminated in broad areas, less vulnerable by themselves, connected with other members of community on a daily basis, and do not require a regular salary for support.
Since drinking water still is a problem in case of likely bio-incidents, the necessity to rediscover strategies for the treatment and disinfection of water remains a priority. The aim of our investigation was to establish the potential of using clays as disinfection materials for industrial applications and for household water treatment. In order to determine the efficiency of using clays as disinfecting agents, water samples from different sources were subjected to the action of different quantities of clay using a specific contact time. The antimicrobial effect against faecal indicator bacteria from water (total and faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) was investigated by using the multi-tube test method as described in STAS 3001/1991-Water/Bacteriological analysis. The results point out the antimicrobial effect of clays and help us understand similar processes in nature - the role of nanoparticulate fraction in self-purification of waters.
Mercury is a heavy metal, the second most toxic element in the world. After having suffered from various episodes such as Minamata (Japan, 1953) resulting from mercury poisoning, various techniques are suggested to separate and threat the mercury from natural bodies of water. Recently, adsorption has attracted considerable attention especially from cheap and abundantly available waste materials. This paper is focused on the feasibility of using some low – cost sorbents (bark, lignin, chitin/chitosan, zeolite, peat moss, tree leaves, modified wool etc) in the removal of mercury ions from natural and wastewaters.
The importance of optimal management in case of disasters depends on lot of factors, one of them being the communication. An accurate mode of communication at the level of population could have a maximal efficiency in case of natural and man-made disasters, contributing to human health and life saving as well as to the limitation of negative impact on environment.
Natural processes and phenomena that have the greatest damage on the economy and the population of the republic (earthquakes, mudflows, floods and landslides) are considered; the conditions and reasons for their formation and development, the role of anthropogenic factor marked as measures of prevention and protection from these natural hazards.
As the whole territory of Armenia is situated in very high seismoactive zone seismic risk assessment of dams is very important for Armenia. The problem of anthropogenic seismicity related with operation of reservoirs is essential in geophysics and earthquake engineering, especially for the reservoirs, which are constructed in seismically active regions. We have collected and analyzed the data on the current reservoir's and dam's situation and then pointed out the main factors that determine the risk's levels. Our investigations, performed for the three most dangerous homeland large dams, are based on the main principles of total risk analysis for dams, presented in the recommendations of International Committee of Large Dams (ICOLD [1-3]). In this paper it has been also shown, that the number of microearthquakes increase after reservoir operation, causing changes of seismic regime in observed regions.
This paper presents the benefits of a hybrid shear wall system as blast/seismic resisting elements for short term as well as long term military, commercial and industrial settlements. Different from traditional sandwich shear wall systems, the hybrid shear walls consist of two exterior precast wall layers and one interior cast-in-place concrete layer. This type of wall system has been increasingly used in moderate to high-rise buildings in low-seismicity areas, and its seismic behavior is little known. Understanding its seismic behavior helps develop rational seismic design details as an alternative seismic force resisting system to conventional cast-in-place shear walls by combining the inherent benefits of speedy construction and sustainability of precast technology with improved structural integrity and ductility.
The impact of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake on the people, buildings and industry was so large that it soon became a milestone in the disaster mitigation program in Turkey. Since then, a number of earthquake awareness programs and risk reduction methodologies have been implemented both in macro and micro scales. Structural strengthening/retrofitting techniques for standard buildings, innovative risk mitigation methods, the urban transformation project, early warning systems, rapid response projects and compulsory earthquake insurance are examples of the mitigation programs implemented after the earthquake. In spite of these achievements, risk reduction applications in practice in industry are still limited. This is mainly due to the fact that industrial facilities consist of complex systems and components in which conventional methods may not be applied. Indirect losses such as cascading events, fires, business interruption and market loss may become more important than direct losses. This paper summarizes the damages observed at industry and critical infrastructures in Turkey after the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake. The risk reduction measures taken in the transportation lifelines, residential buildings, and hospitals, completed and on-going remedial actions in the last decade are presented. High risks involved in the industry and the need for implementing proper risk mitigation measures are also emphasized.
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